# Roman Numerals - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

While you imagine numericals nowadays, the first of all that springs to mind is the decimal method we utilize regularly. This system, however, is not the single approach to portray numericals. There are multiple methods used by distinct cultures around the world that utilize all kinds of symbols. One such method is Roman numbers.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have become a method of expressing numbers using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It existed during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still educated in school, which is probably why you have come across this article.

Now, we are going to walkthrough Roman numerals, definition, how they operate, and how to convert Roman numerals to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

Primarily, let's take a brief look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numbers were initially used by the historic Romans, as you may have expected from the name. They were utilized in many angles of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Presently, its widespread use is primarily because of its aesthetic reasons. You may have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, chapter numbers, page numbering, copyright dates, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman numeral system includes numbers employing a mixture of letters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to create groups that depict numbers. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, symbolizes the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, individually. You can then combine these numbers to represent any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is established on the concept of place value, Roman numerals are based on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman numeral's numeric values are founded on the sum of the values of its individual parts. One more major difference is that the decimal approach is established on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numerals are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's look at a few hands-on examples of Roman numerals.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we observe the numericals in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman number is portrayed by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we understand that this is the 4th entry in the series utilizing the properties we will discuss further ahead.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the latest entry in the original trilogy. Looking at the value represented, it contains a V ensued by an I. Thus, we will add a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, comprehending this Star Wars movie is the 6th to enter the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is essential to know the numeric value of all the letters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with all Latin alphabets with allocated numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Regular Numbers

Now that we have the useful table of Roman numerals, we can use that information to transform numbers back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will convert these values at any time.

### Steps to Transform Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To change Roman numerals to everyday numbers, we will utilize the additive and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then add the both values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is greater in value, deduct the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numeral to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this process until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's see how you can convert Roman numbers with a some examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is lesser than 50, we add the two values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and we find 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and the result is 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Hence, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equal to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Consider the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, which is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and get 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and get 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and we find 1903.

Since we have reached the end of the Roman number group, we stop here with our answer. Therefore, the Roman number MCMIII is equal to the regular number 1903.

With this knowledge and a little practice, you will change Roman numbers to decimal numbers like a pro!

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